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依据美国农业部的数据,2016年美国人共耗费了近1100万吨糖,其间大部分是运动饮料和苏打水等含糖饮料。

 


研讨标明,摄入过量的糖──尤其是含糖饮猜中的果糖,或许会危害大脑。

 

研讨人员运用弗雷明汉心脏研讨(Framingham Heart Study,FHS)的数据发现,常喝含糖饮料的人记忆力较差,脑容量变小,一起大脑中担任学习和记忆的海马体显着缩小。更糟的是,进一步的研讨复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载发现,每天喝无糖苏打水(diet soda)的人,比那些不喝的人患中风和发呆症的概率要高出3倍。

 

这两项研讨别离宣布在学术期刊《阿尔茨海默病与发呆》和《中风》上。

 


但研讨人员一起也指出,这些发现,只证明了相关性(correlation),并非因果关系。因而研讨者在正告人们不要过量饮用无糖苏打水或含糖饮料的一起,也指出需求做更多的研讨以确认它们是怎么危害大脑,以及它们怎么令糖尿病或各种血管疾病愈加恶化。

 

“这些研讨尽管不是一应俱全或完结性的,但它们供给了强有力的数据和激烈的主张。”同为这两篇研讨论文的资深作者Sudha Seshadri说:“看来含糖饮料真实没什么优点,用人工甜味剂替代好像也并无助益。”她又弥补说,或许咱们仍是应该喝水。

 

两篇论文的通讯作者帕斯(Matthew Pase)说,过量的糖一贯与肥壮、心脏病和2型糖尿病等心血管和代谢疾病有关,但人们对其对大脑的影响知之却甚少。

 

他挑选研讨含糖饮料来查看糖消费总量,由于“很难衡量饮食中的糖摄入总量,”他说:“因而运用含糖饮料替代之。”

 


第一项研讨剖析了约四千人的数据,包含核磁共振成像(MRI)扫描和认知测验成果,并把研讨目标分为两组:每天饮用超越两杯含糖饮料者,或每周喝超越三杯苏打水的人。在“高摄入量”组中,发现了多种加快脑老化的痕迹,包含较小的全体脑容量,较差的情景记忆和复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载萎缩的海马体,这些均为前期阿尔茨海默病的风险预兆。还发现,每天至少喝一杯苏打水的人,和脑容量削减相关。

 

第二项研讨查询同类疾病患者45岁以上的子孙,对其做了10年的监测后发现,喝含糖饮料和中风、脑发呆并无相关。但是,每天至少喝一杯无糖苏打水(diet soda)者更或许患上以上两种疾病。

 

以往的研讨发现无糖苏打水啊朋友再会者或许引起中风,而导致脑发呆这仍是头一回。他弥补说,这些研讨没有区别人工甜味剂的类型,也没有考虑其它或许来历,他说,科学家现已提出了人工甜味剂形成损伤的各种假定,从改动肠道细菌到改动大脑对“甜美”的观点,但“咱们需求持续研讨以找出其潜在机制。”


By American Heart Association News

Source:A diet soda a day might affect dementia risk, study suggests

One or more artificially sweetened drinks a day was associated with higher risk of stroke and dementia, a new study suggests.

 

The research, published Thursday in the science journal Stroke, examined consumption of beverages sweetened wit复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载h sugarand artif惠夕蕊icial sweeteners but did not find that same ass名表ociation with sugary beverages. The re阑尾炎手术sults, however, come with a host of caution flags raised by experts. They say the study does not even hint that regular sugary drinks directly cause strokes or dementia.

 

The study’s lead author said the observational study shows an association or trend in a group of people and not a direct cause-and-effect link. It’s more “hypothesis-generat5yysping.”

 

“The jury is still out, and this just shows people need to be cautious,” said Matthew Pase, Ph.D., a fellow in the department of neurology at Boston University School of Medicine and an investigator at the Framingham Heart Study.

 

Previous studies have looked at artificial sweetene佣兵全国rs’ impact on stroke risk. Pase believes this is the first study to look at its association with risk of dementia – and he hopes the work will spur more research into the effects of these sweeteners on the bra比目鱼的做法in.

 

Researchers analyzed the self-reporteddiets of two sets of people participating in the Framingham Heart Study, the longest-running heart study in the U.S., funded by the National Heart, Lung,and Blood Institute and run in partnership with Boston University. The study examined beverage intake of 2,888 people over the age of 45 for its stroke analysis and 1,484 people over the age of 60 for the study’s dementia analyses.

 

Over seven years, researchers used food frequency questionnaires up to three different points in time. They then followed up for the next 10 years to determine who developed stroke and dementia.

 

At the end of the follow-up period,researchers counted 97 strokes, or 3 percent of the participants in the stroke analysis arm of the study. Of those, 82 were ischemic. The study found 81 casesof dementia, or 5 perdawncent of the participants in the dementia arm of the study.Of those, 63 were diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease.

 

The study found that people who reported drinking at least one artificially sweetened drink a day compared with lessthan one a week were 2.96 times as likely to have an ischemic stroke, caused by blood vessel blockage, and 2.89 times as likely to be diagnosed with dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. The results were adjusted for vari凹ables such asage, sex,聊城东阿气候 caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity and smoking.

 

Pase and other researchers say the work points clearly to the need to investigate the possible biological reasons artificial sweeteners might affect the brain and the need for more experimental and clinical trials.

 

“We need to be cautious in the interpretation of these results,” said Rachel K. Johnson, Ph.D., past chair ofthe American Heart Association’s Nutrition Committee and professor of nutritionat the University of Vermont. “It doesn’t prove cause and effect. When you see these kinds of ass飞刀又见飞刀ociations, you want to always ask what is the biological plausibility, what is the mechanism that might be causing this?”

 

But, Johnson said, there is a part of the issue that is “settled science.”

 

“We have a robust body of literature on the adverse effects of sugary drinks. Absolutely t复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载he message is not to switch tosugary drinks,” she said.

 

Studies linking added sugars and conditions that lead to cardiovascular disease – the No. 1 cause of death in the world –have been around for years. Diets high in added sugars have been cosarctanxconnected to heart risk factors such as obesity and high blood pressure.

 

In 2012, the AHA and the American Diabetes Association issued a scientific statement on the use of artificial sweeteners,saying "that when used judiciously, [artificial sweeteners] couldf 河鲀acilitate reductions in added sugars intak强攻美受e.” The statement called for further research on non-nutritive sweeteners and cardiovascular risk but noted that“limiting added sugars is an importa周西的病最新消息nt strategy for suppo箜篌rting optimal nutrition and healthy weights.”

 

Consumers shouldn’t “overinterpret” the latest study’s results, said Christopher Gardner, Ph.D., director of Nutrition Studies at the Stanford Prevention Research Center and a professor of medicin复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载e at Stanford Uni炫富帮versity. Gardner was lead author on the安小晚霍深 2012 statement.

 

“It’s a tricky thing,” said Gardner, who leads research into how people can optimize their diets. “Nobody ever said diet sodas were a health food.”

 

For many people, su复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载ch as people with diabetes or obesity, he said, diet sodas can be part of the gradual switch from sugary drinks.

 

“So, the bottom line is, ‘Have more waterand have less diet soda,’” he said. “And don’t switch to real soda.”

 

Pase, who studies how people can change behavior or diet to prevent dementia, said people need to be skeptical when deciding whether to select something with artificial sweeteners or real sugar.

 

“Just because a beverage is advertised as bei复活节,feet-188金博宝手机|金博宝188官方网站|188金宝搏官网下载ng healthy because it doesn’t韩国床戏 have any sugar doesn’t mean that it is healthy,” Pase said. “Artificial sweeteners may have effects in the body that we haven’t begun to explore.”


(来历:阿尔茨海默病)


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